12.4 Diet and Health: Cancer

12.4 Diet and Health: Cancer


– WELCOME TO THE FOURTH SECTION IN OUR SERIES ON DIET
AND HEALTH, AND THIS SECTION IS
COVERING CANCER. I WANT TO POINT OUT THAT
THERE ARE A NUMBER OF FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE
TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER. THERE’S, OF COURSE,
GENETICS, VIRAL INFECTIONS,
LIFESTYLE CHOICES, ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS,
AND NUTRITION. BECAUSE THIS IS
A NUTRITION CLASS WE’RE, OF COURSE, GOING TO FOCUS
ON THE NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS THAT CONTRIBUTE
TO CANCER DEVELOPMENT. LET’S START BY LOOKING
AT HOW CANCER DEVELOPMENTS. AND I WANT TO POINT OUT THAT
CANCER IS NOT JUST ONE DISEASE; IT’S ACTUALLY A
GROUP OF DISEASES. AND ALTHOUGH I’M GOING TO BE TALKING ABOUT IT
AS IF IT WAS ONE DISEASE. AND WE THINK ABOUT
THE CARCINOGENS, SO THESE ARE FACTORS,
MOLECULES, THAT ARE GOING TO
CAUSE CELL DAMAGE AND THEN LEAD TO
CANCER DEVELOPMENT. NOW, LET’S TAKE TOBACCO. AND OF COURSE,
THIS ISN’T NUTRITION, BUT THIS IS A VERY
IMPORTANT LIFESTYLE FACTOR. TOBACCO OR CIGARETTES
ARE A KNOWN CARCINOGEN. NOW, HOW DOES THIS
LEAD TO CANCER? WELL, IT CAUSES DAMAGE
DIRECTLY TO THE DNA, AND DNA ARE WITHIN OUR CELLS. AND ONCE YOU HAVE THAT
DAMAGED DNA IN THOSE CELLS, THOSE CELLS MULTIPLY. BUT NOW, ALL OF THESE CELLS
HAVE THAT DAMAGED DNA. AND THERE ARE FACTORS
IN OUR ENVIRONMENT AND IN OUR DIET THAT ACTUALLY
PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT, SO THEY ACTUALLY MULTIPLY EVEN
MORE ENHANCES THE CELL GROWTH. LASTLY, AND MOST DANGEROUSLY,
IS THE METASTASIS. IS THESE CELLS ACTUALLY
GET INTO THE BLOOD STREAM. NOW, REMEMBER, IF YOU HAVE A
DAMAGED DNA WITHIN A CELL, AND THAT’S WITHIN AN ORGAN,
NOW THESE CELLS WILL LEAK OUT AND THEN THEY
GET TO ANOTHER ORGAN, AND THEY INVADE, TAKE OVER,
THEY’RE GOING TO BE DESTROYING ESSENTIALLY
SOME OF THE EXISTING, WORKING, FUNCTIONING ORGAN. AND THEN THAT DAMAGED
DNA IN THAT CELL IS NOT GOING TO BE DOING THE
APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR OR FUNCTION OF THAT ORGAN
IT’S JUST INVADED. AND THAT’S WHEN THE CANCER
DEVELOPMENT BECOMES VERY DEADLY, SO THAT’S THE METASTATIC STAGE. AND WHERE YOU MAY HAVE HEARD A
LOT ABOUT METASTATIC CANCER IS, SAY, FROM BREAST CANCER
WHERE WOMAN IN THEIR 40’s MAY NOT KNOW THEY
HAVE BREAST CANCER. THEN THEY DEVELOP
BACK PAIN OR MAYBE THEY BROKE A HIP JUST
LIKE AN 80-YEAR-OLD; AND I HAVE TWO ACQUAINTANCES
WHO THIS JUST HAPPENED TOO. AND THEY ACTUALLY HAD STAGE IV
METASTATIC CANCER THAT INVADED, YOU KNOW, IT WENT THROUGH
ALL THESE STAGES AND THEN METASTASIZED FROM THE
BREAST INTO THE BONE. AND THEN IT CAUSED WHAT WE
CALL A PATHOLOGIC FRACTURE. SO THIS IS WHEN IT’S,
YOU KNOW, A VERY ADVANCED STAGE OF CANCER. NOW, WE ARE EXPOSED TO
CARCINOGENS EVERY DAY SO YOU CAN’T JUST SAY,
“ALL RIGHT, I’M NOT GOING TO BE EXPOSED
TO ANY CARCINOGENS,” BECAUSE YOU CAN’T AVOID IT. BUT THE BODY HAS A
SELF-DEFENSE SYSTEM, THIS MECHANISM, TO HELP PREVENT CANCER DEVELOPMENT. IF NOT, BECAUSE WE ARE EXPOSED
TO CARCINOGENS EVERYDAY, WE’D ALL DEVELOP
CANCER AND PROBABLY BE DEAD BY OUR
20’s AND WE’RE NOT. SO THIS IS WHAT
HAPPENS WITH THE BODY. WE’RE EXPOSED TO
CARCINOGENS DAILY AND WE WANT TO TRY TO
LIMIT THAT OF COURSE, BUT WHEN YOU ARE EXPOSED TO
THEM SOME MAY CAUSE DAMAGE, BUT NOT ALL OF THEM DO. NOT ALL OF THEM ACTUALLY
CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE DNA. AND ALSO, IF WE
HAVE ANTIOXIDANTS, THEY’RE PRODUCED IN OUR BODY, AND HOPEFULLY WE CAN
INCREASE THOSE FROM OUR DIET, WHICH WE’VE TALKED ABOUT. AND THE ANTIOXIDANTS WE’LL QUENCH ANY OF THOSE
FREE RADICALS. SO ANY OF THE CARCINOGENS THAT
ARE FREE RADICALS OR IF THEY PRODUCE FREE RADICAL DAMAGE THAT
CAN GO ON TO PRODUCE DNA DAMAGE; THESE ANTIOXIDANTS
WILL QUENCH THOSE FREE RADICALS AND PREVENT
THEM FROM CAUSING DAMAGE TO THE DNA OR OTHER
STRUCTURES IN THE BODY. SO, AGAIN, THAT’S THE
NEXT DEFENSE MECHANISM, BUT IF THOSE
CARCINOGENS GET BEYOND, THEY ACTUALLY DO CAUSE DAMAGE, THEY’RE NOT QUENCHED BY THE
ANTIOXIDANTS AND THEY ACTUALLY DO CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE DNA,
THE BODY CAN REPAIR IT. SO WE HAVE THIS
NATURAL REPAIR PROCESS THAT GOES THROUGH AND SAYS,
“HEY, THERE’S A DAMAGE THERE. I’M GOING TO REPAIR IT
BEFORE THE CELL MULTIPLIES.” SO IT’S NOT SPREADING
THAT DAMAGED DNA. AND THEN LASTLY, LET’S JUST SAY THAT WE
HAVE THE DAMAGE TO THE DNA, THE BODY DIDN’T REPAIR IT. THE CELL MULTIPLIES, BEFORE THE CELL MULTIPLIES
THE CELL RECOGNIZES THAT SOMETHING’S WRONG AND IT
ACTUALLY SELF DESTRUCTS. SO THESE ARE ALL THE
REPAIR PROCESSES. WHEN CANCER DEVELOPS IS WHEN
ALL OF THESE PROCESSES FAIL. SO HOW DO YOU REDUCE
YOUR RISK OF CANCER? WELL, THERE ARE ACTUALLY
A NUMBER OF WAYS. NUMBER ONE: INCREASING YOUR
INTAKE OF FRESH WHOLE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. EATING WHOLE GRAINS. AGAIN, NOT BREAD,
NOT PASTA, NOT CEREAL, NOT COOKIES OR CRACKERS
OR ANYTHING LIKE THAT, I MEAN, WHOLE GRAINS. THEY NEED TO LOOK LIKE
THEY OCCURRED IN NATURE. IT SHOULD BE NOT
LOW IN CALORIES, BUT IT SHOULDN’T BE
HIGH IN CALORIES, SO BASICALLY AN
APPROPRIATE CALORIE INTAKE. MAINTAINING A HEALTHY WEIGHT; IT HAS BEEN SHOWN THAT
THOSE INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE OBESE HAVE A GREATER
RISK OF DEVELOPING CANCER. BEING PHYSICALLY ACTIVE; AND THERE’S, I’M GOING SAY
ONE NOTE ON THIS AND THAT IS THAT BEING PHYSICALLY ACTIVE
WILL REDUCE YOUR CANCER RISK, BUT WHEN YOU EXERCISE
YOU’RE ACTUALLY BREATHING MORE OXYGEN AND YOU HAVE MORE
METABOLIC PROCESSES HAPPENING, WHICH MEANS YOU
HAVE MORE OXIDATION. MORE OXIDATION CREATES
MORE FREE RADICALS, MORE FREE RADICALS
CAN DAMAGE YOUR DNA, BUT IT HASN’T BEEN SHOWN AT
ALL THAT MODERATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IS ASSOCIATED WITH
AN INCREASED RISK OF CANCER. IT’S ONLY ASSOCIATED WITH
A DECREASED RISK OF CANCER. LOW IN SATURATED FAT. I’M GOING TO PUT A QUESTION
MARK THERE BECAUSE WE USED TO THINK THAT SATURATED FAT WAS
A MAIN PROMOTER OF CANCER. AND NOW THAT THAT’S A
LITTLE BIT UP IN THE AIR, WE ALSO KNOW, AGAIN
LIKE I’VE MENTIONED, THERE ARE DIFFERENT TYPES
OF SATURATED FAT AND THEY MIGHT IMPACT THE DEVELOPMENT
OF CANCER IN DIFFERENT WAYS. SO IT TOOK A WHILE FOR ALL THIS RESEARCH TO ACTUALLY
BE EXPLORED. MY RECOMMENDATION IS
MODERATE SATURATED FAT, BUT REALLY FOCUSING ON
LIMITING PROCESSED FATS AND LIMITING RED MEATS
BECAUSE THERE REALLY HAS BEEN A DIRECT LINK WITH RED
MEAT INTAKE IN INCREASED CANCER RISK PARTICULARLY
WITH THE PROCESSED MEATS, SO A LOT OF THE RED MEATS
ALONG WITH THE PROCESSED MEATS. WHAT ARE PROCESSED MEATS? YOUR DELI MEATS, YOUR SAUSAGES,
YOUR HOT DOGS, EVERYTHING THAT DOESN’T
LOOK LIKE A MUSCLE. SO IF YOU ARE EATING MEAT, MAKE SURE IT LOOKS LIKE A
MUSCLE AND MAKE SURE IT’S NOT PUT TOGETHER AND PACKAGED AND,
YOU KNOW, INTO DIFFERENT
FORMS OF SAUSAGES. LIMITING ALCOHOL INTAKE; MODERATE ALCOHOL INTAKE IS FINE. ANY EXCESS ABOVE THAT IS DEFINITELY LINKED
TO CANCER RISK. AND ASIDE, EVEN ONE
DRINK A DAY FOR A WOMAN CAN INCREASE THEIR
RISK OF BREAST CANCER. REMEMBER, THESE AREN’T
CAUSATIVE AGENTS ALTHOUGH TOBACCO IS ONE OF OUR
MORE POWERFUL RISK FACTORS SO YOU DEFINITELY
WANT TO DECREASE. IF YOU’RE SMOKING
CIGARETTES LOOK AT QUITTING ESPECIALLY
NOW IF YOU’RE YOUNG, BUT REMEMBER ALL OF
THESE ARE RISK FACTORS. THEY’RE VARIABLES THAT
WILL CONTRIBUTE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIFFERENT
TYPES OF CANCER. LET’S TALK A LITTLE
BIT ABOUT SOME OF THE FUN FOODS WE
ALL LOVE TO EAT; BBQ MEATS, CHICKEN,
SAUSAGE, JUST THAT CRISPY BROWN
STAGE OR THAT LITTLE BIT OF BLACK CHAR ON
THERE THAT’S SO TASTY. WELL, A FEW PROBLEMS
WITH ANY HIGH HEAT AND THIS CAN BE PAN FRIED,
DEEP FRIED, OR BARBEQUED. ANY SORT OF BROWNING
REACTION THAT OCCURS, IT TYPICALLY OCCURS WITH
SUGARS AND ESPECIALLY SUGARS IN AMINO ACIDS
THAT REACT TOGETHER. SO IF YOU’RE SLOPPING ON THAT,
YOU KNOW, BARBEQUE SAUCE AND
THROWING IT ON THE GRILL, GETTING A BROWNING REACTION THAT ENDS UP PRODUCING
THESE ACRYLAMIDE, WHICH ENDS UP
BEING CARCINOGENIC. ANY HIGH HEAT, AND AGAIN
IT’S NOT ONLY THE BARBEQUE, BUT A REALLY HIGH HEAT,
ALSO WITH DEEP FRIED FOODS, CAN PRODUCE HETEROCYCLIC AMINES,
ALSO CARCINOGENIC. AND THEN OF COURSE THERE’S
THE MEAT DRIPPINGS. THE MEAT DRIPS ON THE
COAL OR NOW, YOU KNOW, IF YOU HAVE PROPANE AND
THEN ALL THAT SMOKE COMES UP AND IT COVERS THE
MEAT AND IT PRODUCES THIS WONDERFUL BARBEQUED
FLAVOR WE ALL LOVE. WELL, UNFORTUNATELY
THOSE ARE CARCINOGENS. THEY STICK TO THE MEAT; WE EAT IT. SO THERE ARE, YOU KNOW,
REALLY THREE DIFFERENT REASONS WE HAVE FOR AVOIDING SOME
OR MINIMIZING YOUR INTAKE OF BARBEQUED FOODS AS FAR AS
DEFUSING YOUR CANCER RISK. BUT I DO WANT TO
POINT OUT THERE ARE A FEW TIPS FOR EATING
BARBEQUED MEATS. AND ONE OF THEM IS IF
YOU ACTUALLY WRAP YOUR MEAT IN ALUMINUM FOIL AND
PUT THAT ON THE GRILL, YOU’RE GOING TO AVOID
THE MEAT DROPPINGS. SO YOU’RE NOT GOING TO HAVE ALL THAT BLACK CHAR
AND THAT WILL HELP. AND THEN AT THE VERY END,
YOU KNOW, FOR A MINUTE YOU
CAN PUT IT ON AND GET A LITTLE BIT OF THAT FLAVOR. ALSO, DON’T HAVE IT ON
THAT REALLY HIGH HEAT. YOU CAN SLOW COOK IT ON A BBQ
WITHIN THE ALUMINUM FOIL AND IT WILL ACTUALLY COOK WITH
A FAIRLY GOOD CONSISTENCY. MARINATING IS
ACTUALLY REALLY GOOD, ALTHOUGH NOT WITH THE SUGARS. SO IF YOU DO MORE OF A MARINADE, IT CAN JUST BE A
WATER-VINEGAR BASE. THAT’S ACTUALLY BEEN
SHOWN TO DECREASE SOME OF THE CARCINOGENIC
FACTORS WITHIN THE MEAT. AND, YOU KNOW,
NOT SLOPPING ALL OF THOSE BBQ SAUCES
WITH A LOT OF SUGAR. AND LASTLY, THERE ARE ACTUALLY
SOME (INAUDIBLE) TO SHOW THAT IF YOU MICROWAVE MEAT
FOR A MINUTE AND THEN YOU TAKE ALL THE JUICES
AND YOU DUMP THEM OUT, YOU’RE DUMPING OUT SOME OF
THOSE HETEROCYCLIC AMINES AND THEN YOU CAN PUT IT
ON A GRILL, WHICH, I MEAN, WHO WOULD’VE THOUGHT. A LOT OF PEOPLE
THAT THE BBQ IS SAFE AND THE MICROWAVE IS DANGEROUS, SO JUST SOME INTERESTING
IDEAS OR THOUGHTS TO, YOU KNOW, IF YOU REALLY
ENJOY BBQ IN THE SUMMER, HOW YOU CAN REDUCE YOUR RISK OR
YOUR EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS. NOW, UNFORTUNATELY FOR YOU VEGETARIANS IT’S
NOT JUST THE MEAT, AND FOR THOSE OF YOU WHO
LOVE FRENCH FRIES AS WELL. ANY OF THE CARBOHYDRATE-RICH
FOODS, AGAIN, WE HAVE THIS GLUCOSE,
YOU KNOW, THE STARCH REACTION. ANY SORT OF BROWNING,
AND THAT CONTRIBUTES TO THE BROWNING AND IT’S
ALWAYS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES. THAT’S WHY IT’S
GOING TO BE THE DEEP FRIED OR THE REALLY
HIGH PAN FRIED, WHEN YOU GET THAT
BROWNING REACTION. IT CREATES THAT
REALLY UNIQUE FLAVOR, AROMA, THAT’S JUST
FANTASTIC, RIGHT? WELL, AND ALSO THAT’S WHERE
THE ACRYLAMIDE COMES IN, WHICH IS A KNOWN CARCINOGEN. EXACTLY HOW MUCH IT CONTRIBUTES
TO CANCER IS NOT KNOWN, BUT IT IS KNOWN TO CONTRIBUTE
TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER. SO ALL THOSE REALLY
HIGH TEMPERATURES; ANYTIME YOU HAVE THAT BROWNING
REACTION YOU’RE GOING TO HAVE EXTRA CARCINOGENS
INFUSED INTO YOUR DIET. THIS IS THE END OF
OUR SECTION ON CANCER.  

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