2.5 Food Choices and Health: Nutritious Diet

2.5 Food Choices and Health: Nutritious Diet


– THIS IS PART 5 ON FOOD CHOICES
AND HUMAN HEALTH, FOCUSING ON THE CHARACTERISTICS
OF A NUTRITIOUS DIET. THE FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF
A NUTRITIOUS DIET ARE VARIETY, ADEQUACY, BALANCE,
MODERATION, AND CALORIE CONTROL. VARIETY MEANS THAT THE DIETS
INCLUDES VARIOUS TYPES OF FOOD. THIS IS IMPORTANT
BECAUSE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOODS OFFER DIFFERENT
TYPES OF NUTRIENTS. IF WE TOOK AN EXAMPLE OF SOMEONE
EATING OATMEAL IN THE MORNING, AND A SPINACH SALAD
FOR LUNCH OR DINNER, MAYBE THIS INDIVIDUAL WANTS
TO LOSE WEIGHT, BUT ALSO WANTS
TO TRY AND BE HEALTHY. EVEN THOUGH THESE FOODS
MAY APPEAR TO BE HEALTHY, THEY ARE NOT, THE DIET DOES NOT
INCLUDE A VARIETY OF FOODS. THEREFORE, THEY’RE
NOT GOING TO BE ALL OF THE NUTRIENTS NECESSARY. AND THIS IS WHY
THIS OVERLAPS WITH ADEQUACY. IF THERE ARE NOT VARIOUS AMOUNTS
OF FOODS IN THE DIET. THEN THERE ARE NOT GOING TO BE
AN ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF NUTRIENTS. SO ADEQUACY MEANS
GETTING ENOUGH, GETTING ENOUGH
OF A VARIETY OF FOODS BUT ALSO OF THE NUTRIENTS
THAT WE NEED, OUR ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS. REMEMBER OUR THREE ESSENTIAL
MACRO NUTRIENTS ARE FAT, PROTEIN, CARBOHYDRATE. AND OUR MICRO
NUTRIENTS ARE VITAMINS, MINERALS, AND THEN WATER. BALANCE, BALANCE MEANS EXACTLY
WHAT IT SOUNDS LIKE BUT THAT THE DIET
SHOULD BE BALANCED. AND THIS IS ONLY
IN RELATIONSHIP TO, OR ONLY IN TERMS OF FOODS THAT WE’RE GOING TO CONSIDER
TO BE HEALTHY. IF WE TAKE THE DIET OF OATMEAL
AND SPINACH, WE HAVE A DIET THAT IS HEAVILY WEIGHTED
ON JUST SPINACH AND OATS. AND THERE ARE MANY OTHER
FOOD GROUPS THAT ARE MISSING. SO AS FAR AS THE BALANCE, THERE’S NOT A LOT
OF BALANCE THERE. IF SOMEBODY IS EATING HAMBURGER
AND FRENCH FRIES EVERYDAY, MAYBE THERE’S AN EGG MCMUFFIN
IN THE MORNING, HAMBURGER, MILK SHAKE, FRENCH FRIES FOR LUNCH
AND DINNER, YOU CAN SEE THAT DIET IS
OUT OF BALANCE. THERE’S, IN THAT CASE
THERE AREN’T ENOUGH GREENS OR VEGETABLES OR FRUITS
OR WHOLE GRAINS, OR WHOLE FOODS. THE DIET IS NOT IN BALANCE. AND EVEN IF WE TOOK JUST OATMEAL
AND SPINACH, AND IF SOMEONE
ONLY HAD TWO BITES OF A SPINACH SALAD
AND HAD TEN CUPS OF OATMEAL, YOU CAN STILL SAY THE SPINACH
AND OATMEAL WAS POTENTIALLY A HEALTHY CHOICE,
BUT AGAIN IT’S NOT BALANCED. SO THESE ALL OVERLAP
WITH EACH OTHER. MODERATION AND CALORIE CONTROL
APPEAR TO BE FAIRLY SIMILAR BUT MODERATION DOES MEAN
MODERATE AMOUNTS OF MOST THINGS. AND I LIKE THE TERM MODERATION
BECAUSE MOST THINGS YOU CAN HAVE IN MODERATION, BUT I DON’T
THINK IT REALLY IS ALL INCLUSIVE BECAUSE I DON’T THINK YOU SHOULD
EAT TRANS FATS IN MODERATION. AND I THINK YOU SHOULD EAT
AN ABUNDANCE OF VEGETABLES. SO I DON’T THINK IT APPLIES
TO EVERYTHING. BUT WHEN WE DO
THINK OF MODERATION ESSENTIALLY SAYING THAT,
YOU KNOW, ONCE IN A WHILE
IF YOU WANT TO HAVE ICE CREAM, THAT’S PROBABLY OKAY IF YOU HAVE
JUST A SMALL CUP OF ICE CREAM, BUT NOT THE ENTIRE PINT OF BEN
AND JERRY’S, SO MODERATION CAN APPLY TO HAVING DESSERTS
OR FAVORITE TREATS. CALORIE CONTROL, NOW NOT ONLY IS
NOT GETTING TOO MANY CALORIES, BUT IT’S ALSO
GETTING ENOUGH CALORIES ‘CAUSE SOME PEOPLE DO UNDER EAT. AND IF YOU ARE, CONSUME
A REALLY LOW CALORIE DIET, AND MANY OF YOU ARE,
WILL HAND IN DIET STUDIES THAT ARE A THOUSAND CALORIES
OR UNDER, WHICH IS A VERY
LOW CALORIE DIET, IT WILL BE IMPOSSIBLE
FOR YOU TO OBTAIN ALL OF YOUR NECESSARY NUTRIENTS
UNLESS EVERY SINGLE LAST MORSEL YOU PUT IN YOUR MOUTH IS
NUTRIENT DENSE. SO VERY DIFFICULT
TO EAT A VERY LOW CALORIE DIET AND STILL OBTAIN
ALL OF YOUR NUTRIENTS. WE LOOK AT THIS,
THIS IS FROM SUPER TRACKER AND IT JUST LOOKS
AT SOME OF THE FOOD GROUPS AND WE’LL GET INTO
THIS NEXT WEEK. BUT IF WE LOOK HERE YOU CAN SEE THAT IF WE JUST HAD
OATMEAL AND SPINACH AS A MEAL, THERE WOULD BE ONLY MEETING 25%
OF THE GRAIN RECOMMENDATION, 67% OF THE VEGETABLE
RECOMMENDATION, AND 6% OF THE DAIRY,
THE FRUIT RECOMMENDATIONS. THERE’S STILL A DAIRY AND
PROTEIN RECOMMENDATION. I’LL TALK ABOUT WHY
I DON’T REALLY LIKE THE DAIRY RECOMMENDATION
LATER IN THIS SEMESTER. AND WHY YOU DON’T NECESSARILY
NEED TO EAT GRAINS. BUT THIS IS PART
OF OUR USDA FOOD PYRAMID OR MY PLATE
RECOMMENDATIONS. WHAT ABOUT SUPPLEMENTS? IF YOU’RE NOT EATING
THE RIGHT FOODS, IF YOU CANNOT AFFORD
TO EAT THE RIGHT FOODS, IF YOU JUST DON’T HAVE TIME
TO MAKE THE RIGHT FOODS, IS IT OKAY TO GO TO MCDONALD’S
AND THEN POP A SUPPLEMENT. AND THE ANSWER IS NO,
IT’S NOT– YOU’RE NOT GOING TO
GET THE HEALTH BENEFITS YOU THINK YOU
ARE GETTING. WHAT HAPPENS IS WHEN
YOU ARE EATING POORLY YOU ARE ALSO GETTING
A LOT OF FOODS IN YOUR DIET AND NUTRIENTS
SUCH AS SUGAR, TOO MUCH SUGAR OR TOO
MUCH PROCESSED FATS, REFINED FOODS IN YOUR DIET, AND YOU CAN’T TAKE THOSE
AWAY WITH A SUPPLEMENT. AND SUPPLEMENTS ARE
SOLD TO INDIVIDUALS FOR THIS INSURANCE PLAN,
WELL JUST TO MAKE SURE YOU’RE GETTING ALL YOUR
VITAMINS AND MINERALS. THE PROBLEM IS THAT MOST OF THE
RESEARCH SHOWS THAT INDIVIDUALS WHO TAKE SUPPLEMENTS AREN’T
GETTING EVERYTHING THEY, AREN’T GETTING AS MUCH
NUTRITION AS THEY THINK AND IT HASN’T SHOWN
TO REALLY REDUCE THE INCIDENTS OF CHRONIC
DISEASE OR PREVENT DEATH. SO YOU HAVE TO THINK ABOUT
WHAT IS YOUR GOAL ON TAKING THE
SUPPLEMENTS. AND I’LL TALK ABOUT THIS
THROUGHOUT THE CLASS, BUT FOOD IS MORE THAN JUST
VITAMINS AND MINERALS. IT’S MORE THAN JUST OUR
ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS. REMEMBER CARBOHYDRATE, FAT, AND PROTEIN,
MACRO NUTRIENTS, VITAMINS AND MINERALS,
OUR MICRO NUTRIENTS. BUT WHEN YOU EAT FOOD THERE IS
MORE IN THERE THAN YOU THINK. THERE ARE PHYTONUTRIENTS WE’LL LEARN ABOUT
NEXT WEEK. THOUSANDS OF THESE BIOACTIVE
CHEMICALS, WE DON’T– RESEARCHERS DO NOT COMPLETELY
UNDERSTAND THEM YET, THEY DON’T UNDERSTAND HOW THEY INTERACT WITH THEIR
METABOLIC PROCESSES, SOME WHICH ARE IDENTIFIED ARE
KNOWN TO HELP PREVENT CHRONIC DISEASE AND MANY INTERACT IN
WAYS THAT WE CAN’T UNDERSTAND. IT’S IMPORTANT TO
KNOW THAT A TAKING AN INDIVIDUAL NUTRIENT
OUT OF A FOOD, PUTTING IT INTO A PILL
HAS NOT BEEN PROVEN BY RESEARCH TO REDUCE YOUR RISK OF
DISEASE OR IMPROVE YOUR HEALTH. IT’S ALWAYS BEST TO GET
YOUR NUTRIENTS FROM FOOD.

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